Graphene sheets are composed of carbon atoms linked in hexagonal
shapes, as shown in the following figure, with each carbon atom
covalently bonded to three other carbon atoms. Each sheet of graphene is
only one atom thick and each graphene sheet is considered a single
molecule. Graphene has the same structure of carbon atoms linked in
hexagonal shapes to form carbon nanotubes, but graphene is flat rather
A graphene sheet
Because of the strength of covalent bonds between carbon atoms,
graphene has a very high tensile strength. (Basically, tensile relates
to how much you can stretch something before it breaks.)
In addition, graphene, unlike a buckyball or nanotube, has no inside
because it is flat. Buckyballs and nanotubes, in which every atom is on
the surface, can interact only with molecules surrounding them. For
graphene, every atom is on the surface and is accessible from both
sides, so there is more interaction with surrounding molecules.
Finally, in graphene, carbon atoms are bonded to only three other
atoms, although they have the capability to bond to a fourth atom. This
capability, combined with great tensile strength and the high surface
area to volume ratio of graphene may make it very useful in composite
materials, which are discussed in Chapter 5. Researchers have reported
that mixing graphene in an epoxy resulted in the same amount of
increased strength for the material as was found when they used ten
times the weight of carbon nanotubes.
A key electrical property of graphene is its electron mobility (the
speed at which electrons move within it when a voltage is applied).
Graphene’s electron mobility is faster than any known material and
researchers are developing methods to build transistors on graphene that
would be much faster than the transistors currently built on silicon
Another interesting application being developed for graphene takes
advantage of the fact that the sheet is only as thick as a carbon atom.
Researchers have found that they can use nanopores to quickly analyze
the structure of DNA, as discussed in Chapter 9. When a DNA molecule
passes through a nanopore which has a voltage applied across it,
researchers can determine the structure of the DNA by changes in
electrical current. Because graphene is so thin, the structure of a DNA
molecule appears at a higher resolution when it passes through a
nanopore cut in a graphene sheet.
Excerpted from Nanotechnology For Dummies (2nd edition), from Wiley Publishing